Tag Archives: Creation

Why Universe’s Origin from Nothing without Divine Intervention is Circular Reasoning

Theists claim that there is a God and that this God is everywhere. That means this theistic God is present at each and every point of this universe. The three major attributes of Biblical God are his omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence. Now what does the word omnipresence mean? Below are some definitions of the word omnipresence.

‘Omnipresence: This theological term means “always present.” Since God is infinite, His being knows no boundaries. So, clearly He is everywhere. This truth is taught throughout the Bible as the phrase “I am with you always” is repeated 22 times in both the Old and New Testaments. These were even Jesus’ words of assurance just after giving the challenge to His disciples to take His message to the entire world. This is certainly a comforting truth for all who follow Jesus.’1

‘Omnipresence means all-present. This term means that God is capable of being everywhere at the same time. It means his divine presence encompasses the whole of the universe. There is no location where he does not inhabit. This should not be confused with pantheism, which suggests that God is synonymous with the universe itself; instead, omnipresence indicates that God is distinct from the universe, but inhabits the entirety of it. He is everywhere at once.’2

In Wikipedia the following has been written about God’s omnipresence: ‘The omnipresence of God refers to him being present everywhere…[O}mnipresence…denotes that God “fills every part of space with His entire Being,”’3

Now scientists have created a vacuum within the present universe and they are claiming that this vacuum is a real vacuum. But here theists will say that the vacuum is not a real vacuum at all, because there will be the presence of this omnipresent God within the vacuum itself.

Now are the scientists supporting the claim made by the theists, or are they opposing it? Here they are opposing the claim. That means they are denying the existence of God. And there is justified reason for them to deny the existence of God, because up till now there is no evidence that there is any God. 

So here theists are claiming that the void created by the scientists is not a real void because God is everywhere, whereas scientists are claiming just the opposite that it is a real void because God does not exist at all.

It is well and good if scientists claim that God does not exist and that therefore the void created by them is a real void. Nobody has to say anything against it. But if they utilize this void for further showing that no God is needed for creating the universe, then there will be real reason for raising objection against that step. Because here the premise from which they are starting already contains the conclusion which they want to reach. Their starting premise is this: there is no God and that is why the void created by them is a real void. But even a fool will understand that if there is no God, then this non-existent God can in no way be the creator of the universe. Therefore their starting premise already contains within it the conclusion they want to reach that no God is needed for creating the universe.

As a non-existent God can in no way be the creator of the universe, so all the efforts made by the scientists to further show that no God was needed for creating the universe were actually futile. This is because when they have claimed that the void is a real void, they have also made another claim along with this, either knowingly or unknowingly, that no God has actually created this universe, because there was no such God to create it.

So, are these scientists befooling us? Or, are they befooling themselves?

Reference:

  1. Attributes of God, http://www.allaboutgod.com/attributes-of-god-2.htm
  2. http://study.com/academy/lesson/omnipotent-omniscient-and-omnipresent-god-definition-lesson-quiz.html
  3. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attributes_of_God_in_Christianity

God reveals himself to man in his own interest

A God who knows how to create a universe will also know how to keep a proof of his existence in the created world. And he will also know how to make his presence known to human individuals.

Now let us suppose that this God has created the universe but that he has failed to keep any proof of his existence in the created world. Neither has he ever revealed his presence to anybody. In such a case no one will ever know that there is such a God and man will believe in as many false gods and goddesses as possible as they have done in the early ages of human history.

Now let us suppose that God has created the universe but that while creating it he has totally forgotten to keep any proof of his existence in the created world. However God has regularly revealed himself to many human beings in all the ages of human history. These human individuals through their personal experience will come to know that there is such a God with such and such attributes and they will also know that all the other gods and goddesses that man has imagined so far are all false gods and goddesses only. In this way human society will slowly move from polytheism to monotheism.

But this situation is not an ideal situation at all, because this will ultimately lead to authoritarianism and agnosticism/atheism/scepticism. The ideal situation is the one where there will be both; there will be the personal experience of human individuals and at the same time there will be one or more proof/s of God’s existence in the created world.

From above I hope it becomes clear that if there is a God at all, then why that God will have to reveal himself to human beings from time to time, as otherwise they will never come to know that there is such a God and as in such a situation they will believe in false gods and goddesses only. At the same time if God does not want to breed authoritarianism and agnosticism/atheism/scepticism, then he will also have to keep a proof of his existence in the created world.

I think I have been able to make my point clear that if there is a God at all, then why it is possible for human beings to personally know there is a God, because in his own interest God will have to reveal himself to man from time to time.

I personally know there is a God. That is why I also know that scientists will never be able to explain everything of nature by natural means.

God cannot be defined, God’s Attributes can only be described

Atheists sometimes object that there is no clear definition of a god/God. Here I want to say very clearly that God cannot be defined, God’s attributes can only be described. If God is the creator of the universe, then from this it follows that before creation God was alone and that there was no one else, nothing else other than God. As universe means space, time, matter and energy, so from this it follows that before creation there was no space, no time, no matter and no energy. That means God was neither in any space nor in any time and that God could contain neither any matter nor any energy, because before creation there was no space, no time, no matter and no energy. Being neither in space nor in time God will be thus spaceless and timeless. Containing neither any matter nor any energy God will be thus immaterial and his total energy will be zero. All these directly follow from the statement that God is the creator of the universe. By simple logic it can also be shown that this God being spaceless and timeless will also have the following attributes: God will be changeless, immortal, all-pervading, one, unborn, uncreated, without any beginning, without an end, everlasting and non-composite.1

Some believers also say that God is omnipotent and omniscient; God is all-powerful and all-knowing. But I do not think so. God being the creator of the universe must have necessary power and knowledge for creating it. Otherwise how has God created the universe? But I do not think that solely due to this reason God can be called omnipotent and omniscient.

Thus the complete description of the creator of the universe will be this: God is spaceless, timeless, changeless, immortal, all-pervading, one, unborn, uncreated, without any beginning, without an end, everlasting, non-composite and immaterial.

Whatever else has been said about this God is just wishful thinking.

Reference:

  1. https://sekharpal.wordpress.com/2015/10/23/who-created-god/

 

Why Does The Universe Exist?

The question ‘Why does the universe exist?’ can be answered in two steps:

1) First of all we will have to know as to whether there is any God or not;

2) If we can somehow come to know that there is a God, then we can further ask the question as to why he created the universe. When we will have the answer to this question, we will also come to know as to why the universe exists, why we exist.

The above two have already been answered here1 and here2 respectively.

But even if we somehow come to know the reason as to why the universe exists, yet this will not answer all the questions. This is because we can still ask the question: Why does God exist? If there is a God, then what is the reason that there will have to be a God at all? If we think that there is actually such a reason, then we must keep in mind that we will have to find this reason within God’s existence itself and not outside of it, as otherwise there will be an infinite regress. That means God must have to be a necessary being, not contingent. But what is the reason due to which God will have to exist at all? I think I have already answered this question here3, where I have shown that the existence of nothing is self-contradictory and that therefore only something can exist, and not nothing. I have also shown that simply by default this something will always be spaceless, timeless, changeless, immortal, all-pervading, one, unborn, uncreated, without any beginning, without an end, everlasting and non-composite.

So I think I have answered all the questions that can possibly be asked: Why does God exist? Why does the universe exist? Why do we exist? God will have to be there because existence of nothing is self-contradictory. Being there he will have to create the universe in order to overcome his utter loneliness.

Reference:

  1. https://sekharpal.wordpress.com/2016/01/11/is-fine-tuning-actually-required-for-proving-the-existence-of-god/
  2. https://sekharpal.wordpress.com/2016/02/07/why-did-god-create-the-universe/
  3. https://sekharpal.wordpress.com/2015/11/30/is-there-a-god/

 

 

 

 

Why Did God Create The Universe?

John Zande, a militant atheist, in a blog post Why? A Challenge to all Believers (December 4, 2015)1 has put this question to all believers:

                         Why did your God create this universe?

He thinks that it is a question that should haunt every waking hour of a believer and occupy his every thought. He also thinks that this question is such that every believer should obsess over it, maddened by its dazzling conspicuousness, and embarrassed beyond all measure that it even exists. This question should consume his life, tying him up in ferocious knots of disquiet and affording no genuine peace until a definitive answer is found. But actually few theists ever ask this question, and even fewer ever attempt a possible, maybe, perhaps, never-quite-certain answer.

Then in the rest of the blog he asks again:

“If all things (the past, the present, and the future) are contained within a maximally powerful being, the Catalogue of Catalogues who existed in a state of perfection, then why did it consciously create the physical universe? What possible purpose does this machine, this contrivance, serve?”

Although he thinks that the question he has put to the believers cannot have any never-quite-certain answer, yet it is not true at all, because definitely there is an answer, and of course it is a quite-certain answer.

Imagine yourself in place of God. Imagine that you are only there in this vast universe and that there is no one else other than you. Imagine that you will have to be there in this condition forever and ever, forever and ever, forever and ever, because you can never cease to be, because you can never die. So you will be all alone in this universe forever and ever, forever and ever, forever and ever. We know that as human beings we suffer a lot in this earthly life, but at the same time we also know that one day all these sufferings will come to an end with our inevitable death. But what about the loneliness of God? Will that ever come to an end? Can God bring it to an end by committing suicide one day? If he cannot, then what shall he have to do in order to overcome his utter loneliness?

Please try to find an answer to this question yourself. The answer is so obvious that I need not have to give you that.

Reference:

  1. https://thesuperstitiousnakedape.wordpress.com/2015/12/04/why-a-challenge-to-all-believers/

God of the Gaps

I will begin this post with two postulates:

1) God has created this universe;

2) He has brought man in this universe with some purpose.

I am not claiming here that these two postulates are true, or that I can prove them to be true. But I want to show here that if these two postulates are true, then God will always be the God of the gaps. Anyone who will be reading this post should not forget that there is an “if” clause in the last sentence.

Now I will begin with the supposition that God has created this universe. If God has created this universe, then he could have created it in four different ways:

1) He created it in such a way that there was no necessity for Him to intervene in it after creation;

2) After creation he intervened in it, but these interventions were a bare minimum, that is, he intervened only when these were absolutely necessary. In order to clarify my point here, I will say that he intervened only when he found that without his intervention the universe would come to a standstill;

3) He created the universe in such a way that in order to keep it going he had to make very frequent interventions in it;

4) God’s total intervention after creation.

If it was the purpose of God to keep mankind crippled in every possible way, then he would have adopted either the third or the fourth way while creating the universe. This is because in these two cases mankind, in spite of her having sufficient intelligence and reasoning power, will fail to unveil the secrets of nature, because in almost every phenomenon of nature that she will decide to study she will ultimately find that there always remains an unknown factor, for which she will have no explanation. For her the book of nature will thus remain closed forever. But if it was God’s purpose that mankind be master of his creation, then it is quite natural for him that he would try to keep the book of nature as much open to her as possible, so that with the little intelligence human species has been endowed with she will be able to decipher the language of nature, and with that acquired knowledge she will also be able to improve the material conditions of her life. In that case God will try to adopt the policy of maximum withdrawal from his creation. He will create the universe in such a way that without his intervention the created world will be able to unfold itself. However, that does not mean that he will never intervene. He will definitely intervene when without his intervention the created world would become stagnant. In such a scenario human beings will be able to give an explanation of almost all physical events in scientific language. But in those cases where God has actually intervened, she will fail to do so.

So I think there is no reason for us to be ashamed of the “God of the gaps” argument. Yes, if God has created the universe, and if God’s purpose was that mankind be master of his creation, then he would try to keep as little gap in his creation as possible. But the minimum gap that would be ultimately left can never be bridged by any sort of scientific explanation. God will also reside in that gap. Why should we be ashamed of that?

The whole matter can be seen from another angle. Those who strongly believe that God has created this universe also believe that he created it alone. Now is it reasonable to believe that a God, who is capable of creating such a vast universe alone, is not capable enough to keep a proof of his existence in the created world? So I think it is more reasonable to believe that while creating the universe God has also kept a proof of his existence in something created. This proof is open to us all, but we have not found it, because we have not searched for it. So even if it is the case that God has never intervened in the created world after its creation, still there will be a gap in this natural world, purposefully left by God, for which science will find no explanation. This will be the ultimate gap that can only be filled up by invoking God.

So it is quite logical that a God who will create human beings with a purpose will always prefer to be the God of the gaps. Yes, if we were really created by some God, and if it was not God’s desire that we be some sort of semi-savage beast with no knowledge about how nature works, then it makes quite a good sense if I say that in that case God would try to keep the book of nature as much open to us as possible (policy of maximum withdrawal). In such a case mankind will also be able to explain almost everything of nature without invoking God. But then this “ability to explain almost everything of nature without invoking God” will not prove that there is no God, because it might also be the case that this ability is God’s design, God’s plan.

Let me give one example for making my point clear. Let A be one most obvious fact of nature, and let D be one natural phenomenon that follows from A. Let us also suppose that D does not directly follow from A, but that there are some intermediate steps. A causes B, then B causes C, then C causes D. In order to be more precise here let us say that A means dark clouds gathering in the sky, and that D means lightning. We know very well that lightning does not always take place whenever there are dark clouds in the sky. So we will modify the above chain from A to D in this way: A causes B, but B does not always cause C. Instead of C, it sometimes causes C1. When B causes C1, there is no lightning. But when B causes C, in that case only lightning occurs.

A – B – C – D (Lightning)

A – B – C1– No lightning

Now let us suppose that there is a God, and let us also suppose that after creating the universe he has not intervened in it at all. So, all the processes from A to D will be natural. In that case if man wills, then one day she will be able to understand the whole natural process here. She will understand what lightning is, how and when it occurs, and with that knowledge it can be hoped that one day she will also be able to protect herself and her property from lightning.

Now let us suppose that after creation God has frequently intervened in his creation, but his intervention is not total, but only partial. Let us also suppose that God has chosen the above case of lightning for his intervention. That means lightning can never take place unless he wills. When he decides to punish mankind by sending lightning, then only B can cause C; otherwise in every other case B causes C1. In this case the whole chain from A to D will be broken at B. Human beings will never understand how B can naturally cause C, and so she will never understand how D naturally follows from A. So lightning will forever remain a mystery to her.

Now let us suppose that God’s intervention in this universe is total, that is, behind every natural phenomenon there is the hand of God. In that case mankind will understand nothing of nature, and she will remain as ignorant as a savage. In this world her fate will be no better than birds and beasts, and her condition will remain as miserable and helpless as those birds and beasts in front of natural calamities.

But if God wills that mankind be almost equal to him in the knowledge of things in nature, and if he also wills that she live in this world with some dignity and not like birds and beasts, then he will create the universe in such a way that almost all the phenomena in nature can take place naturally without his intervention. In that case he will adopt the policy of maximum withdrawal. He will intervene only in those cases where his intervention is absolutely necessary. One such case is the genetic code. Genetic code is information code, and those who believe that there is a God try to make a point here.

It is said that information code cannot naturally arise from space, time, force, field, matter and energy. Some intelligence is required, and nature does not possess that intelligence. Only God possesses that intelligence, and therefore only God can generate information code. If what is said is true, then I will say that mankind will never understand how information code can naturally arise from space, time, force, field, matter and energy. It will forever remain a mystery to her.

My thesis presented here has at least one merit. It can successfully explain as to why nature has opened her secrets to mankind, whereas proponents of accidental origin of man cannot give any reason as to why nature has done so. If their theory was correct, then human beings also could have led a life just like other higher primates; chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans. That mankind has not done so and that instead she has been able to raise a civilization and lead a life with some dignity and self-respect shows that nature has taken a special care for us and equipped us accordingly.

 

A Universe from Nothing? : Part I

Scientist Stephen Hawking in his book “The Grand Design” has written that the universe can and will create itself from nothing because there is a law such as gravity. As per him spontaneous creation is the reason as to why there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist. Therefore he thinks that it is not at all necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going.1

That an entire universe can come out of nothing is not a scientifically proven fact, rather it is merely a speculation. This speculation is also based on a logically flawed assumption, the assumption that the void is a real void. Here scientists have assumed that our universe is a Godless universe, and that therefore the void is a real void. But it may be true that this is a Godless universe, or it may not be true. As the believers cannot claim that they know with certainty there is a God, so also neither the scientists can claim that they know with certainty there is no God. However there is a definite way to know with certainty that there is no God. Here I am not claiming that there is a definite way to know with certainty there is a God, but I am only saying that there is a definite way to know with certainty there is no God. And this definite way is the scientific way.

If scientists ultimately become successful in explaining everything in this universe, including its origin also, without invoking God, then we will have no other option but to admit that the universe we live in is a Godless universe. But there is a very big “IF” here, if they become successful. Until they achieve their success here, they do not know whether they will be ultimately successful or not. So until they achieve their success here, they do not know whether it is a Godless universe or not. All their earlier successes cannot give them any assurance that in future also they will be equally successful. If somebody claims that there is no reason as to why they will not be successful, then I will have to bring in Hume here, but I think it will not be necessary. It is like climbing a mountain peak. So long as one is not there at the peak, she does not know whether she will be able to reach there at all. But once she has reached there, she knows with certainty that she has done it. So in order to come to the conclusion that we live in a Godless universe scientists will have to be able to give a scientific explanation for each and every single fact, every single event, or every single phenomenon of this natural world, and not a single fact, single event or single phenomenon should be left unexplained.

If the scientists claim here that they have explained almost everything of this natural world without invoking any kind of god, then I will have to point out to them that the origin of the universe has not yet been explained in a properly logical way. Before proceeding further here I want to quote a single line (or, a part of it) from an essay by Keith M. Parsons, an atheistic philosopher: “…[P]rima facie the most promising location for a Creator would be in the “creation” event itself, the origin of the universe.”2 If the most promising location for a Creator would be in the “creation” event itself, then this Creator must have to be eliminated first from the “creation” event, because that act only can ensure that there is no such Creator.

So until this so-called Creator has been eliminated from the creation event by providing a most plausible, and natural, scientific explanation (A) for it, we cannot have any idea as to whether the void is a real void or not. This is because if there is a creator God, then as per the theists that God is everywhere and therefore the void is no longer a real void. So let A be provided first by the scientists. Then only we can be sure that the void is a real void. Therefore A should always come first, and then only we can conclude that the void is a real void. But in the case under consideration it has already been concluded that the void is a real void without giving a natural explanation for the origin of the universe. And that makes all the difference.

Let me try to make my point more clear. Let e0 be the event zero, the origin/birth/creation of the universe, and let e1 to en be all the events that have so far happened in this universe after its origin. Let ne0 be the natural explanation for event zero, and let ne1 to nen be the natural explanations for events e1 to en respectively. Let us now suppose that scientists have already been able to provide ne1 to nen, but that they have so far failed to provide ne0. Will this situation allow us to conclude that there is no God? No, we cannot come to any such conclusion, because if there is a God then there will definitely be his hand behind the event zero. Yes, we can say this with absolute certainty, because God, if he is really God, and if he is really there, will not be our God at all, and neither will we recognize him as such, if he has no control over our destiny. In other words, if this universe is not his creation.

Therefore in order to establish that there is no God one must have to show that there is no hand of God behind the creation event. All the other natural explanations ne1 to nen put together cannot prove that there is no God. But once ne0 is given, it is firmly established that God does not exist. Therefore so far as the question of the non-existence of God is concerned, we can say that when ne0 has already been given, ne1 to nen will become unnecessary. And when ne0 has not yet been given, ne1 to nen are simply useless. And thus we can say that the necessary and sufficient condition for establishing the non-existence of God is that there will have to be a natural explanation for the origin of the universe (ne0).

Therefore so long as ne0 has not been given, we cannot come to the conclusion that there is no God. And therefore so long as ne0 has not been given, neither can we conclude that the void is a real void. And therefore so long as ne0 has not been given, neither can we say that as virtual particles can appear from out of nothing, so also an entire universe.

Here scientist Victor J. Stenger would perhaps have said that so long as there is no evidence for the existence of God, the default position is that there is no God. So in that case they are fully entitled to treat the void as a real void. But in an article titled “A Critique of the Void”3 I have very clearly shown that this universe even if created by a God may not display any evidence of his existence if it is the case that this God is non-interventionist, that is, if it is the case that he has not intervened at all after the creation of the universe. So from the mere fact that so far there is no evidence for the existence of God, it cannot be concluded that this universe is a Godless universe. In such a case the matter regarding the existence or non-existence of God can only be settled at the creation event itself. So scientists are in no way entitled to treat the void as a real void until it is firmly established that this void is really a void, that is, until the creator God is eliminated from the creation event by providing a natural explanation for it.

Scientists usually say that as there is no evidence for the existence of God, so it is reasonable to believe that there is no God. Here I have very clearly shown that neither is there any evidence that something can actually come out of nothing. On the basis of this lack of evidence we can also say that it is reasonable not to believe that the universe has actually originated from nothing.

Reference:

  1. Book: The Grand design, Published by Bantum Books, New York, Ch: The Grand Design, page 282.
  2. No Creator Need Apply: A Reply to Roy Abraham Varghese (2006), www.infidels.org/library/modern/keith_parsons/varghese.html
  3. https://sekharpal.wordpress.com/2015/11/18/a-critique-of-the-void/